Clinical complications associated with diabetes may include the following:
Cardiovascular disease, in many cases, is caused by atherosclerosis - an excess build-up of plaque on the inner wall of a large blood vessel, which restricts the flow of blood. Heart disease is the leading cause of diabetes-related deaths. Heart disease and stroke are two to four times more common in persons with diabetes.
High blood pressure affects 73 percent of persons with diabetes.
Periodontal (gum) disease occurs with greater frequency in persons with diabetes.
retinopathy or glaucoma (eye disease or blindness)
Blindness due to diabetic retinopathy is a more important cause of visual impairment in younger-onset people than in older-onset people. Males with younger-onset diabetes generally develop retinopathy more rapidly than females with younger-onset diabetes. Diabetes is the leading cause of blindness among adults ages 20 to 74.
renal disease (kidney/urinary tract disease)
Ten percent to 21 percent of all people with diabetes develop kidney disease. Diabetes is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), a condition in which the patient requires dialysis or a kidney transplant in order to live.
neuropathy (nerve disease)
Approximately 60 percent to 70 percent of people with diabetes have mild to severe forms of diabetic nerve damage. Severe forms of diabetic nerve disease are the major contributing cause of lower-extremity amputations.
More than half the amputations in the US occur among people with diabetes.
diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)
DKA is one of the most serious outcomes of poorly controlled diabetes, and primarily occurs in persons with type 1 diabetes. DKA is marked by high blood glucose levels along with ketones in the urine.
Persons with diabetes must stay alert for symptoms that can lead to clinical complications. The best way to do this is to:
get regular checkups - finding problems early is the best way to keep complications from becoming serious.
keep appointments with your physician - even when you are feeling well.
be aware of symptoms and warning signs - such as vision problems (blurriness, spots), fatigue, pale skin color, obesity (more than 20 pounds overweight), numbness or tingling feelings in hands or feet, repeated infections or slow healing of wounds, chest pain, vaginal itching, or constant headaches.
carefully self-monitor blood sugar levels several times a day, as directed by your physician.
eat a healthy, well-balanced diet.
get regular exercise.
check your feet every day for even minor cuts or blisters.